Male infertility is an inability to get offspring due to factors that are only related to a man. Among these factors are the low production of semen fluid (sperm), immovable spermatozoa, poorly formed (malformed) spermatozoa or interruptions that prevent normal sperm flow. These conditions can be the result of diseases, infections, chronic health problems, injuries and / or external factors such as exposure to certain chemical reagents.
Among the most common causes of male infertility include:
Expanded veins (Varicocelles)
Varicocelles are veined veins in the seed bags (stratum), They appear because the blood does not flow through them properly. These varicose veins cause an additional amount of blood to be retained in the seed bags, which in turn has a negative effect on the formation of semen. It is one of the most common causes of infertility and can be corrected with a small surgery.
Problems with the channels
Channels that transmit sperm may be absent. The absence may be bilaterally (both sides) both congenital or mechanically blocked due to kills or surgeries, or tissue of healing in response to infections. Sperm is created in the seminal tubules and then carried in the urethra, which is actually the channel through which men urinate and ejaculate. Sperm must pass through the ejaculatory channels to come from the seeds to the urethra.
Men can develop an immune response, antibodies, to their own sperm. Causes of this are injuries to the seeds (testes), large varicose veins in that region, operations of the same or unexplained causes.
These antibodies probably have the effect of several fertilization processes: such as making it difficult for the sperm to penetrate the uterus or to connect to and penetrate the egg.
Difficulties with erection and ejaculation
About 5% of couples with infertility have sex-related factors. This includes inability to maintain and maintain erections, premature ejaculation, inability to ejaculate, retrograde (recurrent) ejaculation, inadequate time planning of sexual intercourse and excessive self-satisfaction (masturbation). The most common problem is actually the small number of sex relationships during the month. It has been confirmed that 5 of 6 previously fertile couples will become pregnant for a period of 6 months if they had relationships 4 times a week. Compared to that, only 1 out of 6 also fertile couples will become pregnant if they have relationships one time a week. Self-satisfaction that leads to ejaculation causes loss of sperm and thus a reduced number of sperm in the next ejaculate. It is not recommended if the couple tries to conceive a child.
Problems with the activity of the seeds (testes)
This generally refers to the inability of the part of the seeds that otherwise produces sperm to create an appropriate number of mature spermatozoa. This can happen at any stage of creation due to conditions such as when there are completely absent cells in the seeds that are dividing to become spermatozoa-Sertolium cells or sperm can not complete its development because of unclear reasons it gets stuck in some phase of division. In some cases due to genetic abnormalities, hormonal factors or varicose veins, the number of produced spermatozoa can be so small that only a few or no one is present in the ejaculate. But even in these cases, that small number of sperm can be collected by the methods of advanced reproductive technology and to get a successful pregnancy.
Hidden saints (Crusptorchidism)
The term refers to a condition where in a child after birth it is determined that the seeds are not completely lowered into the seed bags. Because the seeds are highly sensitive to temperature, if they do not go down to adolescence, they will cease to produce sperm, and the rate of malignancy is higher. The recommendation is about a year old, if they do not go down themselves, to make a surgical procedure that will lead them to a position that increases the possibility of normal fertility.
Numerous medications can have a negative effect on the production of spermatozoa. This action is described in the package leaflet. Among other types of drugs, some antibiotics such as Nitrofuran, Erythromycin, Gentamicin are also included. In the group of drugs that cause erectile dysfunction, understandably, most antipsychotics and antidepressants are included.
The seeds need stimulation from the pituitary hormones to produce sperm. If they are absent, production will be reduced or absent. It is important that men taking androgens (steroids) for body building, whether orally or by injection, interrupt the production of sperm-producing hormones.
Men may have infections that may be on the prostate (prostatitis), the supernumerary (epididymycosis) or the seeds (orchitis).
Viral infections of seeds after puberty can cause serious damage, even irreversible infertility. Bacterial infections or sexually transmitted diseases can cause closure of the canals. In that case, the patient has normal sperm production, but the channels under which it travels are closed.
Active bacterial and viral infections can have a negative effect on the formation or functioning of sperm. Laboratory tests should be carried out if there is a suspicion of microorganisms. They most often include sexually transmitted bolts such as Mucoplasm, Ureaplasm and Chlamydia. If antibiotics are detected, the number of spermatozoa is returned to normal. Untreated infections can permanently reduce the number of spermatozoa.
The quality of sperm can be greatly enhanced by taking care of some factors. Such are:
Smoking and toxins of the same cause a 23% decrease in sperm concentration and a 13% decrease in sperm motility (mean of several studies). In a milder form, smoking causes an increased sperm probe with abnormal form and toxicity of seminal plasma (the fluid that ejaculates with spermatozoa).
- Recreational drugs
Marijuana (cannabinoid) reduces the general number of spermatozoa, their mobility and normal morphology. It also reduces the level of hormones, primarily plasma testosterone. Cocaine, even if very rarely consumed, causes a reduction in the general number of spermatozoa, their mobility and normal morphology. These effects can be seen in men who consumed even 2 years before the semen analysis was performed. Cocaine also reduces the ability of sperm to penetrate the uterus.
Anabolic hormones (male hormones) used to increase muscle mass and improve athletic ability prevent the formation of testosterone in the seeds that causes a significant reduction in sperm production or complete absence of it.
Moderate alcohol use does not affect the production of sperm. But excessive use affects the hormones, and thus the formation of sperm. Impact can also be caused if excessive use causes an inappropriate function of the liver or a lack of some nutrients.
Most are harmful to sperm and therefore should not be used if a family is planned.
Stress and overweight adversely affect the number of sperm and quality. Therefore, maintaining the weight and reducing the stature with a healthy diet and exercises, has a positive effect. Aerobic trainings raise the level of testosterone, which increases the production of semen. But only if they are moderate. Men running more than 150 km a week or cyclists driving more than 80 km a week have reduced spermatogenesis.
- High temperatures
Environments that increase the temperature in the seed bags should be avoided. Such is, for example, the wearing of tight lingerie that keeps the seeds close to the body, causing pressure and increased tempestuation in them, which leads to reduced sperm production. Hot baths, saunas, even laptop computers that generate heat, and are leaning in that region, can influence because even a slight increase in temperature has a negative effect on production.
- Vitamins and antioxidants
Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis, development and maintenance of normal sperm. It also reduces the adhesion (agglutination) of the sperm to one another. Vitamin E reduces damage caused to free radicals. The lack of vitamin B9 (folic acid) is associated with a low concentration of spermatozoa. Zinc is important for the function of the prostate, which in turn produces part of the seminal fluid.
It has not been proven that it affects fertility in men or that affects the concentration of sperm. But with its erectile function, it helps in sexual intercourse.
If more than one year without success partners actively try to conceive a child, then it is proposed to perform fertility control. In a man it involves an analysis of semen (semen). It is a painless method that determines the amount and quality of sperm. For analysis, a sample collected by masturbation in a sterile container (urine cup) is required.