Category: Tips

Совети од Гинекомедика


The term contraception refers to various methods that are practiced in order to protect against unwanted pregnancy.

There are several methods of contraception:

  1. Hormonal contraception
  2. Intrauterine contraception
  3. Mechanical or chemical contraception
  4. Natural method of contraception
  5. Sterilization

Hormonal contraception

Hormone contraception is one of the safest methods to protect against pregnancy. These are hormone tablets or so-called anti-infant pills. They drink a pattern every day, at a certain time of the day. After completing a single dose, menstruation is obtained for which time they are interrupted and restarted with the next dose.

Intrauterine contraception

Intrauterine pads or so-called spirals. They contain bioactive substances like copper, silver and hormones, and change every 4-5 years with regular controls. They are recommended for women who have a baby. They apply for the last day of menstruation.

Mechanical or chemical contraception

  • Condoms (male or female), which are never used simultaneously
  • Diaphragm
  • Cervical stroke

Chemical contraceptives act spermicidally and put in a vagina shortly before sexual intercourse. They are in the form of creams, tablets, pastes, jellies, foam and the like.

Natural method of contraception

Interrupted sex (coitus interruptus).


An operative procedure by which men are deprived of reproductive ability. In women, it is implicit in tying the fallopian tubes.

Did you know that...

Vaginal pads made of canvas, wool or sponges soaked with a brine of cheese, lemon juice or oil as contraception was used by some primitive peoples.


HPV is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection in the world today. The HPV virus is the cause of CIN changes, which may, but not necessarily, pass into cervical cancer. However, the fact is that cervical cancer is the second most frequent in the female population after breast cancer.

The information that follows will help you better understand this condition with all of its features and treatment options:

  • What is CIN?
  • How is it diagnosed?
  • How to Prevent HPV Infection?
  • Symptoms of HPV
  • HPV & CIN
  • Do and why to heal?
  • How to cure CIN
  • Are controls needed after treatment?
  • Does your partner need to be treated?

What is CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The term neo denotes something new while the term plasia means growth. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia denotes the abnormal growth of cervical cells, and is also called cervical dysplasia.

CIN is not a carcinoma!

It is classified in 3 degrees: CIN 1 (low grade dysplasia), CIN 2 (middle degree dysplasia) and CIN 3 (high-grade dysplasia).
This disease belongs to the group of sexually transmitted diseases or STD (sexually transmitted diseases) and cause certain subtypes of a genital virus called Human papiloma virus or HPV. The occurrence of the disease favors additional exogenous factors such as smoking cigarettes, lack of folic acid in the diet. Most girls are aged 25-35 years old, but the rest of the population is not spared.
The outer part of the cervix and vagina are covered with several layers of cells called plate cells or plate epithelium. Normally, at the bottom of these layers are young, oval cells. As cells mature, they climb into the upper layers of the mucous membrane and become flat. Such layers of cells are separated from the deeper structures by the so-called basement membrane which is of exceptional importance in determining the degree of change.

Low Dysplasia (CIN1)

Only a small number of cells have changed in the lowest third of the mucous membrane. This degree of dysplasia can in some cases spontaneously retreat. However, many studies favor treatment at this stage in order to prevent possible disease progression.

Middle Dysplasia (CIN 2)

The diseased cells occupy more than half of the cervix of the cervix.
Treatment is indispensable!!!

High Dysplasia (CIN 3)

Also called carcinoma in situ. The diseased cells affect the whole mucous membrane of the cervix up to the basement membrane, but it remains healthy.
Carcinoma in situ literally means 'carcinoma in place' and it is necessary to take EMERGENCY TREATMENT!!!
In all stages of CIN and Carcinoma in situ changes occur above the basement membrane of the mucous membrane of the cervix.

In invasive carcinoma, besides the entire thickness of the mucous membrane of the uterus, diseased cells penetrate the basement membrane. Treatment of this condition is completely different from the treatment of CIN changes and carcinoma in situ, and radical surgical treatment is often necessary.

How is it diagnosed?

HPV and CIN changes are detected with a Pap test. However, the pop test is only a screening method, so that the final diagnosis is made by colposcopy (a method to monitor the cervix) and a biopsy (painlessly taking very small samples from the cervix). If these methods prove the presence of HPV, it is desirable to make the virus typification, ie to indicate which virus subtype is to predict the eventual development of the disease.

How to prevent HPV infection?

In principle, there are two ways to prevent HPV infection:

  1. Abstinence
  2. Using condoms

Symptoms of HPV

Most people who are infected with HPV do not know they have the virus. HPV in 90% of cases does not show symptoms. However, certain subtypes of the HPV virus can cause genital warts in males or females. Other types can also cause different types of cancer.


CIN changes are closely related to the HPV virus, ie the HPV virus is the cause of CIN changes. There are more than 130 subtypes of this virus, divided into groups according to their aggressiveness. Carriers of the group of high risk viruses are HPV 16 and HPV 18. Certainly, there are other high-risk subtypes.

Do and why to heal?

Although CIN is not cancer, it can be developed into it. CIN 1 dysplasia can sometimes be spontaneously withdrawn without treatment. In all western European countries, practice is the preventive treatment of HPV changes to the cervix. There is no method that would anticipate which CIN1 change will retreat which will progress to CIN 2 or possibly cancer. Certainly, the HPV subtype, the immune system of the organism, smoking and other external factors affect the outcome. Because the virus is located in the cells itself, their removal also removes the virus itself, ie it does not remain in the body.

How is CIN treated?

There are several ways of healing. Which way to choose depends on the stage of change, the age of the woman, the presence of other gynecological problems, and the like. The doctor's experience and the availability of adequate equipment are of great importance.

The most commonly used methods are:

  1. Laser treatment. The superior and most used way of treating CIN changes. With a thin laser beam, all diseased cells are removed. Advantages: short-term and painless intervention, the shortest recovery time since it does not remove the cervix is ​​recommended for women who have not yet given birth. Percentage of successful treatment above 95%. Disadvantages: expensive equipment
  2. Cryotherapy or freezing. The probe freezes the cervix at a temperature below zero. Damaged cells account for excessive secretion for the next 30-45 days. Advantages: easy method. Disadvantages: more treatments, abundant squat
  3. Loop excision. A thin wire loop under the action of electricity removes part of the cervix. Advantages: The method at the same time is both diagnostic and therapeutic. Disadvantages: Limited usability
  4. Co-ordination. As the name implies itself, it is the removal of a part of the cervix in the form of a cone. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Advantages: It is also used for the treatment of carcinoma in situ. Disadvantages: a greater percentage of complications, the possibility of complications during pregnancy due to shortening of the cervix
  5. Hysterectomy. Operative removal of the entire uterus. The method is used at high stages of the disease.

Are controls needed after treatment?

YES!!! Because of the possibility of repeating the changes, absolutely necessary controls after treatment. Pap smears usually require every 3 months in the first year, then every 6 months.

Does your partner need to be treated?

HPV is a sexually transmitted disease. The presence of HPV should also be checked with the partner. By simply penetrating the penis with a solution of acetic acid, all possible changes in the partner can be detected.

Great tips on how to mitigate the menstrual symptoms

The study found that only about 25% of women with symptoms related to the menstrual cycle required treatment. The remaining 75% do not seek help because of this. Do not be one of them.
A few of our tips on how to deal with these symptoms and discomforts:

  • Try to overcome the stress (yoga or similar relaxation hours)
  • Regular physical exercises-exercises at least 3 times a week, which would increase endorphins
  • Relaxation and quality sleeping
  • Healthy diet, protein-rich foods
  • Reduction of caffeine, cigarettes, and alcohol especially in the premenstrual phase.

Consult your gynecologist for dietary supplements such as Vitamin B6, Vitamin E, Calcium, Magnesium, pills for pain or Hormones.

Am I pregnant?

We will list a few symptoms that can help you solve the dilemma about whether you are pregnant or not:

  • absence of menstruation three or more days
  • light red scarlet bleeding known as implantation bleeding (when the fertilized cage is embedded in the ligament of the matte)
  • swollen, tense and painful tenderness
  • increased need of urinate
  • feeling tired
  • discomfort in the area of ​​the ovary

If you have these symptoms or at least the first three, you can go to your nearest pharmacy and buy a pregnancy test or visit your gynecologist.

Pregnancy and your weight!

How many kilograms is normal to climb during pregnancy?
No matter how much you want, there is no way to grow just as much as the baby weighs. Prepare for digits between 11-14 kg, and if you carry twins 18-20 kg.
In the first months, weight is growing slowly; in the first trimester you will be barely 2-3 kg, followed by a rise in body weight of 1-2 kg per month, and in the last trimester about 3-4 kg per month.

Pregnancy in numbers:

  • baby 3-3.5 kg
  • placenta 0.7 - 1 kg
  • circulating water 0.8 kg
  • uterus 0.9 kg
  • an additional amount of blood is 1.2 kg
  • an additional amount of fluid of 1.2 kg
  • fatty tissue 4 kg

It is enough to eat properly, to move in order to avoid problems with the weight and not to enter the category of overweight. It is important not to succumb to vanity and to undergo diets that will have a negative effect on your health and health of the baby.

10 Steps to a Healthy Pregnancy

  1. Have fruits and vegetables at least 50% of your daily diet.
  2. Read the ingredients of the food you are buying. Avoid products with more than five ingredients or those containing preservatives - Your baby does not need them.
  3. Move every day - everyday walks or yoga are very useful for you
  4. Avoid heavy and greasy meat - eat chicken, veal, fish
  5. Consume water, and at the same time avoid sweet teas, alcohol. If you simply need an aromatic drink, we have one suggestion for you - put in 1/5 freshly squeezed orange juice in a 200 ml bowl and add water.
  6. Replaced bread, pasta, chips, crackers with fiber-containing products - they will help your metabolism.
  7. Forget about cigarettes - the carbon monoxide you breathe crosses the easily placental barrier and directly goes into your baby's blood.
  8. You will come in honor, but the portions will be crushed - so you will avoid symptom of nausea, surely, turn around.
  9. Take care with coffee - high doses of caffeine lead to vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which leads to impaired circulation in the placenta.
  10. Do not take medication during pregnancy, unless prescribed by your doctor.

Pregnancy test

There are several ways to diagnose pregnancy:

  1. A quick pregnancy test

A method to find out whether you are pregnant or not at home with a quick test, noting that in these tests there is always the option of a false positive or false negative result.

They function on the principle of detection of Beta HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in urine. Increased HCG means a positive result. Usually they are done at the first urination, in the morning because the concentration of HCG hormone is the highest in the morning, so it is easiest to detect.

The sooner you do the test, the more likely you get a wrong negative result, i.e. the test shows that you are not pregnant when you are actually.

Regarding the time to be done ie when the earliest possible pregnancy can be proven with the rapid test, it is considered that it should take at least one week from the delay in the menstrual cycle.

  1. Beta HCG

The blood test procedure is a much more accurate and reliable method than the quick test. This procedure is carried out in a laboratory and works just like the principle of HCG hormone dehydration. If there is a concentration of quantity above the reference values ​​then it is pregnancy.

  1. Echo

The safest way to determine pregnancy is echo diagnostics. With an echo device, a special probe connected to a monitor determines pregnancy. Pregnancy can be seen on your own monitor, which is also seen by the embryo and its further progress.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

PCOS or so-called polycystic ovary syndrome is responsible for the abnormal functioning of your ovaries and the absence of a regular menstrual cycle.

A problem where is an imbalance of female sex hormones.

Symptoms of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome are not easy to recognize until puberty, when the menstrual cycles begin because changes in the hormones begin during the menstrual cycle.

There are several symptoms specific to the PCO syndrome:

  • increased hair and body hair
  • darkening the skin of some body parts
  • problem with weight gain
  • irregular menstrual cycles (less ovulation or absence of ovulation)
  • polycystic ovaries
  • vaginal infections
  • imbalance in hormones
  • Acne
  • Depression

Treatment for symptom control is required to prevent long-term problems.

Ovulation symptoms

The moment when the egg is mature, shoots and leaves the follicle, and moves towards the fallopian tubes is a period of ovulation. Usually, the woman has a 28-day menstrual cycle, but can vary between different women, in some cases the cycle may be up to 35 days.

On the 14th day before receiving the menstruation is the day of ovulation, the so-called most fertile day. Consequently, fertile days are considered 12 to 16 days of the cycle, that is, 2 days before and then from the day of ovulation (because the sperm can survive in the vagina up to 48 hours).

The period of ovulation is associated with certain symptoms that many female women without a calendar know that they are in the phase of ovulation.

Some of these symptoms are the following:

  • Darker vagina color,
  • Raised basal temperature,
  • Acne,
  • Chest pain
  • Feeling of body fatigue
  • Nervousness

Preparation for pregnancy

If you are in the planning process of pregnancy, a few expert advice from our team of physicians around the factors responsible for healthier pregnancy.

When you are ready for pregnancy, you need to take several important measures that would contribute to a healthier pregnancy.

Those measures are the following:

  1. Ask yourself if your family has a genetic hereditary disease that could harm the fetus. It does not necessarily mean that it will be transmitted with certainty, but it will be necessary to keep the pregnancy more closely with more frequent controls in a gynecologist.
  2. If you are drinking contraceptive pills and want to stay pregnant, stop taking and consult a gynecologist.
  3. Calculate days of ovulation or fertile days. You can calculate your festive days on our web site in the Ovulation calculator section.
  4. Both partners make trials, in terms of bacteria viruses, and the like.
  5. Alcohol and smoking occupy a percentage of reduction in chances of getting pregnant. Try to deviate from your lifestyle that period.
  6. Stress is also responsible for bad effects when trying to get pregnant.
    Stress is also responsible for bad effects when trying to get pregnant.

If you have problems for a long time, that is, you can not get pregnant, mandatory consultation with a gynecologist.

Menstrual cycle

The period of the menstrual cycle is 28 days. But in some cases, in some women, this period may be prolonged and longer or shorter.

The period of the menstrual cycle is 28 days. But in some cases, in some women, this period may be prolonged and longer or shorter.

The 14th day before getting menstruation is the day of ovulation, the so-called most fertile day. Consequently, fertile days are considered 12 to 16 days of the cycle, that is, 2 days before and then from the day of ovulation (because the sperm can survive in the vagina up to 48 hours).

There are many ways to determine the day of ovulation. One of the most common ways is:
Measurement of basal temperature, which is increased in the phase of ovulation

Take a casserole.

It is very important to calculate ovulation, that is fertile days, to have regular menstruation, because if you have irregular periods for any reason (hormonal disorder, cysts) you will not be able to accurately calculate when your fertile days are.

Antibiogram on seeds material

Antibiogram of seed material is an analysis of the same from the aspect of sexually transmitted bacteria. Microbiological examination with susceptibility to antibiotics.

In our practice, tests are conducted for the following bacteria:

A bacteria that lives on epithelial cells by infecting the mucous membranes of the urethra, anus and, rarely, the throat.

It is transmitted with vaginal, anal sex and probably oral sex. It can also be transmitted manually (by hand) when touching an anus or genitalia that is infected.

It is usually asymptomatic, ie without symptoms even though it is contagious. If they occur, the symptoms are usually noticeable after 1 to 3 weeks of infection. Men commonly experience pain and tingling during urination, urethritis and the occurrence of a secretion. If it is not successfully treated at an early stage, infection can cause prostatitis (prostate inflammation) or epididymitis (inflammation of the testicles). It can also lead to infertility if an untreated long period remains.

A bacteria that occurs naturally, even as part of the normal flora in men and women. It occurs in 70% of sexually active people. It is therefore not considered a classical sexually transmitted infection, although it can be transmitted through a sexual act. In some cases it can also be transmitted through a touch of nose or eyes of an infected person because it is transmitted through saliva and blood.

It is usually asymptomatic, ie without symptoms and therefore, according to medical studies, it is important to test for this infection annually. If symptoms occur, they include pain in the lower abdomen, pain in urination, unusual secretion, and bleeding from the urethra. Usually infection is detected when symptoms of other conditions occur, such as urethritis (urethral inflammation), epididymitis (inflammation of the testicles), redness and inflammation of the genitals with or without secretion.

If left untreated, infection can cause infertility, nonspecific urethritis, pneumonia, meningitis. It can spread to other parts of the body and cause damage to the joints, nerves and muscles. In women (the partner) other than the above conditions, during pregnancy can cause premature birth and even death of the fetus.

However, due to its frequency and low pathogenicity, the association of this microorganism with the stated serious conditions remains questionable.

  • Chlamydia trachomatis

A bacterium that causes one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. It can be transmitted through vaginal, anal, oral sex, but also from an infected mother to a child at a vaginal birth.
About half of men with chlamydia will not notice any symptoms. If symptoms occur, they include pain when urinating, secretion from the tip of the penis (white or water-like), and pain in the testes. Some men have mild symptoms that disappear in two to three days. But while symptoms may disappear, the infection remains and is transmitted. If not treated properly, it can cause orchitis (swelling of the testicles), reactive arthritis (inflammation of the joints), and infertility.

Complications that may arise from this infection include urethritis and epididymitis. Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra (urinary tube) that extends into the penis. Symptoms are white, blurred secretion from the tip of the penis, pain and tingling in urination, need for frequent urination, irritation and tenderness around the tip of the penis. The most common symptoms of epididymitis are swelling and tenderness in the epididymus, that is, the part of the male reproductive system that is spermatozooned by the testes. If it spreads to a test, then this condition is called epididomo-orchitis. Infection in this region causes inflammation, retards sensitivity in the scrotum (the testicle bag). Some men may notice general redness and sensitivity to the scrotum. Infection can lead to fluid accumulation in the region. If not treated, it can cause sterility, in rare cases and in a short period of 6-8 weeks of infection.

This bacterium can infect the rectum, eyes, and throat in unprotected anal and oral sex. Infection of the rectum causes discomfort, pain, bleeding, and secretion. If infected seeds or vaginal fluid come into contact with the eyes, irritation, pain, and a like like that in conjunctivitis may develop. Throat infections are less common and usually do not cause symptoms.