Insemination is a procedure in which sperm is processed, concentrated and with the help of a thin catheter is injected directly into the woman's uterus. Thus sperm in the optimal concentration reach the tubes (fallopian tubes) where fertilization of the ripe egg is performed.
Insemination is recommended for partners with vague infertility, who have attempted to become pregnant for at least a year. In order to apply this method it is necessary that sperm indicators in a man be within the norm or slightly below the norm. An indispensable condition for successful insemination is transmissible tubes (oviducts), therefore a preliminary examination called hysterosalpyngography (HHS) is required.
Sperm from a partner or donor sperm can be used.
HOW THE INSEMINATION PROCESS TAKES PLACE
Insemination can be done without stimulation (natural cycle) in cases when there is neither a male nor female infertility factor and when a woman has proven the presence of ovulation. This means that before the procedure, the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) is monitored and ultrasound examinations are performed to determine when the insemination is performed without the use of medicaments. If a woman has proven absent ovulation then stimulation of the same with medication is applied. The goal of the stimulation is that more eggs reach maturity. This is achieved with the help of drugs such as Clomiphene Citrate in the form of tablets or gonadotrophins as injections to stimulate the ovaries and achieve ovulation.
When the patient is under stimulation for ovulation, the number and dimensions of the follicles are continuously monitored ultrasound, and when two or three follicles reach the optimum size, an injection with HCG can be induced to induce (induce) ovulation. About the time of expected ovulation, sperm is processed in the laboratory and so prepared using a thin catheter is injected into the cavity of the uterus.
The procedure is painless and compares to the feeling of taking PAP swabs. After the insemination, the woman stays on the gynecological chair for about 15 minutes.
Urinary pregnancy test can be done on the 15th day of the procedure. A blood test for pregnancy can be done 11-14 days of the procedure. Before the procedure, you and your partner should have tested for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, a microbiological examination of the ejaculate.
SUCCESS, ADVANTAGES AND RISKS
The success of insemination is low if:
- Woman is over 40 years old
- Women with moderate to severe endometriosis
- Sperm is with bad indicators
- Egg cells are few or poor quality
- In women with any degree of tubal damage
The advantage of insemination is that there is no puncture of the follicles (more invasive procedure) and no need for anesthesia.
Risks are an infection of the uterine lining, spasms, and extra uterine pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus)