HPV is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection in the world today. The HPV virus is the cause of CIN changes, which may, but not necessarily, pass into cervical cancer. However, the fact is that cervical cancer is the second most frequent in the female population after breast cancer.

The information that follows will help you better understand this condition with all of its features and treatment options:

  • What is CIN?
  • How is it diagnosed?
  • How to Prevent HPV Infection?
  • Symptoms of HPV
  • HPV & CIN
  • Do and why to heal?
  • How to cure CIN
  • Are controls needed after treatment?
  • Does your partner need to be treated?

What is CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The term neo denotes something new while the term plasia means growth. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia denotes the abnormal growth of cervical cells, and is also called cervical dysplasia.

CIN is not a carcinoma!

It is classified in 3 degrees: CIN 1 (low grade dysplasia), CIN 2 (middle degree dysplasia) and CIN 3 (high-grade dysplasia).
This disease belongs to the group of sexually transmitted diseases or STD (sexually transmitted diseases) and cause certain subtypes of a genital virus called Human papiloma virus or HPV. The occurrence of the disease favors additional exogenous factors such as smoking cigarettes, lack of folic acid in the diet. Most girls are aged 25-35 years old, but the rest of the population is not spared.
The outer part of the cervix and vagina are covered with several layers of cells called plate cells or plate epithelium. Normally, at the bottom of these layers are young, oval cells. As cells mature, they climb into the upper layers of the mucous membrane and become flat. Such layers of cells are separated from the deeper structures by the so-called basement membrane which is of exceptional importance in determining the degree of change.

Low Dysplasia (CIN1)

Only a small number of cells have changed in the lowest third of the mucous membrane. This degree of dysplasia can in some cases spontaneously retreat. However, many studies favor treatment at this stage in order to prevent possible disease progression.

Middle Dysplasia (CIN 2)

The diseased cells occupy more than half of the cervix of the cervix.
Treatment is indispensable!!!

High Dysplasia (CIN 3)

Also called carcinoma in situ. The diseased cells affect the whole mucous membrane of the cervix up to the basement membrane, but it remains healthy.
Carcinoma in situ literally means 'carcinoma in place' and it is necessary to take EMERGENCY TREATMENT!!!
In all stages of CIN and Carcinoma in situ changes occur above the basement membrane of the mucous membrane of the cervix.

In invasive carcinoma, besides the entire thickness of the mucous membrane of the uterus, diseased cells penetrate the basement membrane. Treatment of this condition is completely different from the treatment of CIN changes and carcinoma in situ, and radical surgical treatment is often necessary.

How is it diagnosed?

HPV and CIN changes are detected with a Pap test. However, the pop test is only a screening method, so that the final diagnosis is made by colposcopy (a method to monitor the cervix) and a biopsy (painlessly taking very small samples from the cervix). If these methods prove the presence of HPV, it is desirable to make the virus typification, ie to indicate which virus subtype is to predict the eventual development of the disease.

How to prevent HPV infection?

In principle, there are two ways to prevent HPV infection:

  1. Abstinence
  2. Using condoms

Symptoms of HPV

Most people who are infected with HPV do not know they have the virus. HPV in 90% of cases does not show symptoms. However, certain subtypes of the HPV virus can cause genital warts in males or females. Other types can also cause different types of cancer.


CIN changes are closely related to the HPV virus, ie the HPV virus is the cause of CIN changes. There are more than 130 subtypes of this virus, divided into groups according to their aggressiveness. Carriers of the group of high risk viruses are HPV 16 and HPV 18. Certainly, there are other high-risk subtypes.

Do and why to heal?

Although CIN is not cancer, it can be developed into it. CIN 1 dysplasia can sometimes be spontaneously withdrawn without treatment. In all western European countries, practice is the preventive treatment of HPV changes to the cervix. There is no method that would anticipate which CIN1 change will retreat which will progress to CIN 2 or possibly cancer. Certainly, the HPV subtype, the immune system of the organism, smoking and other external factors affect the outcome. Because the virus is located in the cells itself, their removal also removes the virus itself, ie it does not remain in the body.

How is CIN treated?

There are several ways of healing. Which way to choose depends on the stage of change, the age of the woman, the presence of other gynecological problems, and the like. The doctor's experience and the availability of adequate equipment are of great importance.

The most commonly used methods are:

  1. Laser treatment. The superior and most used way of treating CIN changes. With a thin laser beam, all diseased cells are removed. Advantages: short-term and painless intervention, the shortest recovery time since it does not remove the cervix is ​​recommended for women who have not yet given birth. Percentage of successful treatment above 95%. Disadvantages: expensive equipment
  2. Cryotherapy or freezing. The probe freezes the cervix at a temperature below zero. Damaged cells account for excessive secretion for the next 30-45 days. Advantages: easy method. Disadvantages: more treatments, abundant squat
  3. Loop excision. A thin wire loop under the action of electricity removes part of the cervix. Advantages: The method at the same time is both diagnostic and therapeutic. Disadvantages: Limited usability
  4. Co-ordination. As the name implies itself, it is the removal of a part of the cervix in the form of a cone. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Advantages: It is also used for the treatment of carcinoma in situ. Disadvantages: a greater percentage of complications, the possibility of complications during pregnancy due to shortening of the cervix
  5. Hysterectomy. Operative removal of the entire uterus. The method is used at high stages of the disease.

Are controls needed after treatment?

YES!!! Because of the possibility of repeating the changes, absolutely necessary controls after treatment. Pap smears usually require every 3 months in the first year, then every 6 months.

Does your partner need to be treated?

HPV is a sexually transmitted disease. The presence of HPV should also be checked with the partner. By simply penetrating the penis with a solution of acetic acid, all possible changes in the partner can be detected.