Polycystic ovary syndrome or PCO syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and it is the most common cause of female infertility.

The diagnosis of this syndrome is not easy, especially in puberty when due to the immaturity of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (it regulates the menstrual cycle), menstrual cycles are often irregular.

The following disorders are characteristic of this syndrome:

  1.  Menstrual disorders:
    • amenorrhea (absence of menstruation> 3 months), oligomenorrhoea (<8 menstrual cycles during 1 year), up to episodes of heavy bleeding (menopaetry) as a result of hormonal imbalance.
  2. Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia) and impaired glucose tolerance such as symptoms associated with it - obesity (normal body mass), diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia, acanthosis nigricans (usually at the back of the neck, axillary, under the breast) cardiovascular disorders.
  3.  Hyperandogenesis:
    • elevated levels of male sex hormone testosterone, androstenedione) - in the presence of 70-80% of women with this syndrome. Increased levels of these hormones lead to the appearance of hairiness on the face and body, expressed in varying degrees (hirsutism), and the appearance of acne.
  4.  Dyslipidemia (fatigue in the body):
    • elevated levels of LDL and triglycerides, and decreased levels of HDL.
      In order to diagnose PCOS, hormonal analyzes (to prove hormone imbalance), glucose tolerance (OGTT) and blood insulin levels are required to prove ultrasound of ovarian cysts (polycystic ovary criteria are present at 12 and more cysts with a size of 2-9 mm and increased volume of the ovary itself).
      The choice of therapy depends on the severity of the symptoms and consists of:
    • Reducing body weight
    • Physical activity
    • Hormone therapy
    • And last the operating treatment.