Tag: карцином

CIN - CIN (Cervical Intraepithelium Neoplasia)

The HPV virus is the cause of CIN changes, which may, but not necessarily, pass into cervical cancer. However, the fact is that cervical cancer is the second most frequent in the female population after breast cancer.

The information that follows will help you better understand this condition with all of its features and treatment options:

  • What is CIN?
  • How is it diagnosed?
  • How to Prevent HPV Infection?
  • Symptoms of HPV
  • HPV & CIN
  • Do and why to heal?
  • How to cure CIN
  • Are controls needed after treatment?
  • Does your partner need to be treated?

What is CIN
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The term neo denotes something new until the term plasia means growth. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia denotes the abnormal growth of cervical cells, and is also called cervical dysplasia.

CIN is not a carcinoma!
It is classified in 3 degrees: CIN 1 (low grade dysplasia), CIN 2 (middle degree dysplasia) and CIN 3 (high-grade dysplasia).

This disease belongs to the group of sexually transmitted diseases or STD (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) and cause certain subtypes of a genital virus called Human papiloma virus or HPV.

The occurrence of the disease favors additional exogenous factors such as smoking cigarettes, lack of folic acid in the diet. Most girls are aged 25-35 years old, but the rest of the population is not spared.

How is it diagnosed?

HPV and CIN changes are detected with a Pap test. However, the pop test is just a screening method, so the final diagnosis is made by colposcopy (a method for observing the cervix) and biopsy (painlessly taking very small samples of the cervix). If these methods prove the presence of HPV, it is desirable to make the virus typification, ie to indicate which virus subtype is to predict the eventual development of the disease.

How to prevent HPV infection?

In principle, there are two ways to prevent HPV infection:

  1. Abstinence
  2. Using condoms

Symptoms of HPV

Most people who are infected with HPV do not know they have the virus. HPV in 90% of cases does not show symptoms. However, certain subtypes of the HPV virus can cause genital warts in males or females. Other types can also cause different types of cancer.


CIN changes are closely related to the HPV virus, ie the HPV virus is the cause of CIN changes. There are more than 130 subtypes of this virus, divided into groups according to their aggressiveness. Carriers of the group of high risk viruses are HPV 16 and HPV 18. Certainly, there are other high-risk subtypes.

Do and why to heal?

Although CIN is not cancer, it can be developed into it. CIN 1 dysplasia can sometimes be spontaneously withdrawn without treatment. In all western European countries, practice is the preventive treatment of HPV changes to the cervix. There is no method that would anticipate which CIN1 change will retreat which will progress to CIN 2 or possibly cancer. Certainly, the HPV subtype, the immune system of the organism, smoking and other external factors affect the outcome. Because the virus is located in the cells itself, their removal also removes the virus itself, ie it does not remain in the body.

How is CIN treated?

There are several ways of healing. Which way to choose depends on the stage of change, the age of the woman, the presence of other gynecological problems, and the like. The doctor's experience and the availability of adequate equipment are of great importance.

The most commonly used methods are:

  1. Laser treatment. The superior and most used way of treating CIN changes. With a thin laser beam, all diseased cells are removed. Advantages: short-term and painless intervention, the shortest recovery time since it does not remove the cervix is ​​recommended for women who have not yet given birth. Percentage of successful treatment above 95%. Disadvantages: expensive equipment
  2. Cryotherapy or freezing. The probe freezes the cervix at a temperature below zero. Damaged cells fall through abundant secretion for the next 30-45 days. Advantages: easy method. Disadvantages: more treatments, abundant squat
  3. Loop excision. A thin wire loop under the action of electricity removes part of the cervix. Advantages: The method is both diagnostic and therapeutic. Disadvantages: Limited usability
  4. Konisation. As the name implies, the name of the conception is the removal of a part of the cone's neck in the form of a cone. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Benefits: It is also used for in situ cancer treatment. Disadvantages: a higher percentage of complications, a possibility for complications in pregnancy due to shortening of the throat of the matrix
  5. Hysterectomy. Operative removal of the entire uterus. The method is used at high stages of the disease.

Are controls needed after treatment?

YES!!! Because of the possibility of repeating the changes, absolutely necessary controls after treatment. Pap smears usually require every 3 months in the first year, then every 6 months.

Does your partner need to be treated?

HPV is a sexually transmitted disease. The presence of HPV should also be checked with the partner. By simply penetrating the penis with a solution of acetic acid, all possible changes in the partner can be detected.